Varicose Veins Treatment

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Varicose veins are enlarged, twisted, and often swollen veins that typically appear in the legs. They occur when the one-way valves in the veins, which are responsible for directing blood flow back to the heart, become weak or damaged. As a result, blood pools in the veins, causing them to enlarge and become visible through the skin.


Varicose veins occur when the one-way valves in the veins, which are responsible for directing blood flow back to the heart, become weak or damaged. Several factors and underlying causes contribute to the development of varicose veins, including:

1. Heredity : A significant factor is genetics. If your parents or other family members have a history of varicose veins, you may be more likely to develop them.

2. Age : Veins tend to lose elasticity as people get older, making them more prone to valve dysfunction.

3. Gender : Women are more likely to develop varicose veins than men, possibly due to hormonal changes during pregnancy, menstruation, and menopause that can weaken vein walls.

4. Pregnancy : The increased pressure on the veins during pregnancy, along with hormonal changes, can contribute to the development of varicose veins.

5. Obesity : Excess body weight puts added pressure on the veins in the legs, increasing the risk of varicose veins.

6. Prolonged standing or sitting : Jobs or activities that involve long periods of standing or sitting can hinder blood flow in the leg veins and contribute to the development of varicose veins.

7. Lack of physical activity : Regular exercise helps promote good circulation, and a sedentary lifestyle can be a risk factor for varicose veins.

8. Previous deep vein thrombosis (DVT) : A history of deep vein thrombosis can damage the veins and increase the risk of varicose veins.

9. Smoking : Smoking can weaken vein valves and lead to vein problems.

10. Certain medical conditions : Conditions like chronic venous insufficiency can weaken vein walls and lead to varicose veins.


Varicose veins can be categorized into different types based on their size, location, and characteristics. The primary types of varicose veins include:

1. Primary Varicose Veins : These are the most common type and are not caused by an underlying medical condition. Primary varicose veins typically result from weakened vein walls and valve dysfunction.

2. Secondary Varicose Veins : These occur as a result of an underlying medical condition, such as deep vein thrombosis (DVT) or pelvic congestion syndrome, which leads to increased pressure in the leg veins.

3. Trunk Varicose Veins : These are large varicose veins that often appear on the inner thigh and calf. They may cause visible bulges and can be quite uncomfortable.

4. Reticular Varicose Veins : These are smaller veins that are usually blue or green in color and may form a network or web-like pattern on the skin. They are often seen near the surface of the skin.

5. Telangiectasia or Spider Veins : These are tiny, dilated blood vessels that appear close to the skin’s surface. They are often red, blue, or purple and can resemble spider webs or tree branches. Spider veins are the smallest type of varicose veins.

6. Pelvic Varicose Veins : These occur in the pelvis and are more common in women, especially during pregnancy. They can cause pelvic pain and discomfort.

7. Perforator Varicose Veins : These veins connect the superficial veins to the deep veins. When their valves malfunction, blood may flow backward, contributing to varicose veins.


Varicose veins often produce a range of symptoms, and the severity of these symptoms can vary from person to person. Common symptoms of varicose veins include:

1. Visible, Bulging Veins: Enlarged, twisted, or bulging veins, typically with a bluish or purplish color, are a visible sign of varicose veins.

2. Aching or Pain : Many individuals with varicose veins experience a dull, aching pain in the affected area, usually in the legs. This pain can worsen after prolonged standing or sitting.

3. Throbbing or Heaviness : Some people describe a throbbing sensation or a feeling of heaviness in the legs, particularly after extended periods of standing.

4. Swelling : Swelling in the lower legs, particularly around the ankles and calves, can be a symptom of varicose veins.

5. Itching or Burning : The skin around the affected veins may become irritated, leading to itching or a burning sensation.

6. Leg Cramps : Cramps in the legs, especially at night, may occur.

7. Restless Legs : Some individuals with varicose veins experience restless legs, which involves a constant urge to move the legs for relief.

8. Skin Changes : Over time, varicose veins can lead to skin changes, including darkening or inflammation of the skin in the affected area.


Treatment of Varicose Veins

The treatment of varicose veins can vary depending on the severity of the condition, the presence of symptoms, and individual preferences. Common treatment options for varicose veins include:

1. Lifestyle Changes :
Exercise: Regular physical activity can help improve circulation and strengthen the leg muscles.
Weight Management: Maintaining a healthy weight reduces pressure on the leg veins.
Elevating the Legs: Keeping the legs elevated when resting can promote blood flow back to the heart.

2. Compression Stockings : Wearing compression stockings can help improve blood flow in the legs and alleviate symptoms like swelling and pain.

3. Sclerotherapy : This minimally invasive procedure involves injecting a solution into the varicose veins to close them off. It’s typically used for smaller veins, such as spider veins.

4. Endovenous Laser Treatment (EVLT) : EVLT uses laser energy to close off larger varicose veins, typically in the leg. It’s minimally invasive and can be done on an outpatient basis.

5. Radiofrequency Closure : Similar to EVLT, this procedure uses radiofrequency energy to close the affected vein.

6. Ambulatory Phlebectomy : A minimally invasive surgical procedure that involves removing smaller varicose veins through tiny incisions in the skin.

7. Vein Stripping : This is a more traditional surgical procedure in which the affected vein is removed through incisions in the leg.

8. Endoscopic Vein Surgery : For severe cases, endoscopic surgery may be used to remove varicose veins.

9. Laser Therapy : Some newer laser techniques can be used to treat smaller varicose veins or spider veins.


  • Varicose Veins is a relatively common condition and may run in families.
  • It is more common in females with women twice as likely as men to develop tem. This is because of hormonal factors like puberty, pregnancy, menopause and use of birth control
During pregnancy, the enlarging uterus puts pressure on the veins that are coming up from the lower limbs, preventing them from adequate emptying. They usually  develop during the first trimester. Another factor that contributes to their development is the raised blood volume in the body during pregnancy. Thus, the overloaded veins when compre

 Most of the time and especially in the early stages, varicose veins do not cause any symptoms and do not interfere with day to day activities. However, at any stage, they do pose a cosmetic problem giving the legs an unsightly appearance. This is specially troublesome in females.


 Although not too serious or life threatening, varicose veins can lead to the following complications :

  • Thrombophlebitis
    This is an inflammation of the veins in which a blood clot can form in the affected veins. It causes pain and other problems in the affected area.
  • Varicose eczema / Dermatitis
    In long standing cases, the skin in the area around the ankles becomes dry, itchy and discoloured. The resultant scratching may further lead to bleeding, erosions and painful ulceration. It is best to get yourself treated if you reach this stage. These ulcers do not heal easily and over the years can cause cancerous skin changes.
  • Bleeding
    Although there is a risk of bleeding as a result of even mild trauma to the swollen superficial veins, it is never worrisome and can be easily controlled.
  • Lipodermatosclerosis
    The skin around the ankles loses its elasticity and becomes hard and tough. The skin becomes dark brown with areas of white scarring. Sometimes the skin can become acutely inflamed, red and sore and needs immediate attention.

  • * Note: Those with diabetes should get their Varicose Veins treated at the earliest and not wait for them to reach an advanced stage as complications are worse in those with high sugar levels.



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